The protective and anti-inflammatory effect of methylene blue in corrosive esophageal burns: An experimental study
Tanriıkulu, C.S.; Tanriıkulu, Y.; Kiıliınç, F.; Bahadiır, B.; Can, M.; Köktürk, F.; Kefeli, A.
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, esophageal burns are quite common. They are caused by the ingestion of corrosive substances that may lead to esophageal perforation in the short-term and stricture formation in the long-term. Prevention of stricture progression in the esophagus is the main aim of the treatment for corrosive esophageal burns. We aimed to investigate the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of methylene blue (MB) treatment on corrosive esophageal burns. METHODS: Twenty-eighht rats were used in the study and randomly divided into four equal groups; group 1 (Sham), group 2 (control), group 3 (topical treatment), and group 4 (topical plus systemic treatment). Except for group 1 (Sham group), all three groups received sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in order to generate esophageal burns. In addition, group 2 was given normal saline, group 3 topical MB, and group 4 topical and systemic MB. RESULTS: Hydroxyproline levels were found to be lower in each of the treatment groups as compared to the control group (p=0.005 for group 3 and p=0.009 for group 4). There were no differences in the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels between the groups. The stenosis index (SI) in the treatment groups was also lower than the control group (p=0.016 for group 3 and p=0.015 group 4). The histopathologic damage score (HDS) was prominently lower in group 4 as compared to the control group (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: MB is effective in treating tissue damage caused by corrosive esophageal burns and in preventing esophageal stenosis. Complication rates of corrosive esophageal burns may be decreased by using MB in the initial treatment stage. © 2019 Turkish Association of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.... Show more Show less